In addition to performing the duties of a robust NAS network-attached storageunRAID is also capable of acting as an application server and virtual machine host.
All configuration data relating to the operating system is stored on the flash device and loaded at the same time as the operating system itself. Management of your unRAID system is accomplished through an intuitive web interface that offers basic controls for common tasks as well as advanced tuning options for the more savvy user. This makes unRAID intuitive where you want it, and tunable where you need it.
By combining the benefits of both hardware and software agnosticism into a single OS, unRAID provides a wide variety of ways to store, protect, serve, and play the content you download or create. The capabilities of unRAID are separated into three core parts: software-defined NAS, application server, and localized virtualization.
In addition, by eliminating the use of traditional RAID-based technologies, we can scale on-demand by adding more drives and without needing to rebalance existing data. A parity drive provides a way to reconstruct all of the data from a failed drive onto a replacement. Amazing as it seems, a single parity drive can add protection for all of the others! The contents of a hard drive can be thought of as a very long stream of bits, each of which can only be a zero or a one.
If you sum the values of the nth bit on every drive and determine whether that sum is even or odd, then you can force the corresponding nth parity bit to also be even or odd zero or one. If a data drive fails, that parity information can now be used to deduce the exact bit values of the failed drive, and perfectly rebuild it on a replacement drive.
Here's an example:. In the picture above, we have three drives and each has a stream of bits that vary in count based on the device size. By themselves, these devices are unprotected and should any of them fail, data will be lost.
To protect ourselves from failure, we must add a fourth disk to serve as parity. The parity disk must be of equal or greater size than the largest data disk. To calculate the value of each bit on the parity disk, we only need to know the sum total for each column. If the sum of a column is an even number, the parity bit should be a 0.
If the sum of a column is an odd number, the parity bit should be a 1. Here's the same image as before, but with parity calculated per frame:. Now let's pretend that drive 2 in our example has suffered a failure and a new drive has been purchased to replace it:. To rebuild the data on the newly replaced disk, we use the same method as before, but instead of solving for the parity bit, we solve for the missing bit. For column 1, the sum would be 0, an even number, so the missing bit must be a 0 as well.
For column 6, the sum would be 1, an odd number, so therefore the missing bit must also be a 1. The ability to rebuild a disk using parity provides protection from data loss. Parity protection also provides fault-tolerance by allowing full usage of the system while keeping all data accessible, even when a drive has failed. To simplify manageability, users can create shares that allow files written to them to be spread across multiple drives.
Each share can be thought of as a top-level folder on a drive. When browsing through a share, all data from all drives that participate in that share will be displayed together. Users do not need to know which disk a file is on in order to access it under a share. In addition to controlling how data is distributed across drives, users can also control what network protocols the share is visible through as well as define user-level security policy.If you have set a root password for your server when accessing the Unraid webGUI you'll now see a nice login form.
There is still only one user for Unraid so for username enter "root". This form should be compatible with all major password managers out there. As always, we highly recommend using a strong password. There is no auto-logout implemented yet, please click Logout on menu bar or completely close your browser to logout.
Available as a plugin via Community Apps. Our WireGuard implementation and UI is still a work-in-process; for this reason we have made this available as a plugin, though the latest WireGuard module is included in our Linux kernel. We started 6. However, there remains an issue when VM's and Docker containers using static IP addresses are both running on the same host network interface. This issue does not occur with the 4.
We are still studying this issue and plan to address it via this release plan.
Finally, you can get rid of SMBv1 and get reliable Windows network discovery. You will probably notice a slight difference in speed of extract messages.
Bugs : If you discover a bug or other issue in this release, please open a Stable Releases Bug Report. Product Pricing Community Blog. Sign In. December 10, Releases. New For Unraid 6. Note: WireGuard is a registered trademark of Jason A. Linux Kernel We started 6. Changes to the kernel include: Updated to 4.
Enabled Huge Page support, though no UI control yet.By default, unRAID has a few pretty big security vulnerabilities which should be addressed immediately after installation. My take is that unRAID is secure enough to operate within my home network behind a firewall, not exposed to the internet.
Adding the steps here will make it more secure to protect against the unlikely, yet unfortunate possibility that someone nefarious gains access to your home network. The only thing these users can do is access shares. If you want to access a command prompt, you should use ssh. If you want to transfer files, use anything but FTP.
The recent WannaCry ransomware attack highlighted the need for some additional consideration for me. If someone tries to encrypt and delete your files, unRAID would simply cut off access. This is particularly useful since these shares can be accessed by all of your users on potentially vulnerable machines… so if one of their machines gets infected with randsomware, and it tries to access your unRAID shares because those machines likely have the share passwords cachedunRAID can stop the attack from being completely successful.
To install it, I found it easiest to install the Community Applications plugin and search for it and install it from there. This one is important so that you can be notified by the various plugins and unRAID itself about the condition of the server.
For any VM you run, make sure to check for updates on them regularly as well. I would recommend reading that as well — there are some good pointers there about other basics not covered here, like making sure to keep your system up to date, maintaining good backups, etc.
Adding the steps above make it even more secure to protect against the unlikely, yet unfortunate possibility that someone nefarious gains access to your home network. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
Notify me of comments via email. You can also subscribe without commenting. Don't subscribe All Replies to my comments. Skip to content. It will take all of 30 seconds to do it. Just turn them off. Setup email notifications This one is important so that you can be notified by the various plugins and unRAID itself about the condition of the server.
Unless otherwise specified, all packages and steps are deprecated. Before booting your unRAID system you need to copy a few files to your flash drive. Create a folder named unmenu in the root of your flash drive. When the system has been booted you will be greeted with a prompt similar to.
This will present quite a bit of information, however, the only line we are interested in is the one containing. The IP address numbers after inet addr will almost certainly be different, but anything that has If there is nothing after inet addr make sure your network cable is connected, and you have a router or other DHCP server on your network. If you do not have a DHCP server you need to set your network settings manually.
Note your IP address now, you may need it shortly, and skip to the next section, or continue to the next section to set a static IP address. If you wish, the editing can be done on your windows PC instead. If you type this on an array with a configured parity drive it will force a full parity calculation when you reboot. Then remove the flash drive and open the network configuration file on another computer using Notepad or another text editor you are familiar with. To open the network configuration file with mcedit, at the prompt type.
If using PuTTY as your telnet client program on your PC, the function keys and mouse will work in "mcedit" If not using "putty", you can use The Escape key followed by the number 1 through 0 to simulate function keys 1 through You will need to use function key F2 to save your edited file, and F10 to quit the editor.
Replace D: with whatever drive letter the flash drive is mounted as and open the file with a text editor. If you used vi or mcedit to edit the file, after exiting the editor execute. If you edited the file on another computer. Remove the flash drive and re-attach it to the unRAID server and power it back up. You should get a listing of each SATA controller, its link status, and its speed.
The output will look similar to. In this example there are 6 SATA controllers with 5 drives connected at 3. Make sure your output matches your hardware ie if you have 5 drives connected, make sure you see 5 drives here and the link speeds are correct.
Now that you have verified your UnRAID server can see the network and its hard drives are connected correctly it's time to log into the web interface and continue setup.
Un-Official UnRAID Manual
Using another system that is connected to your network, open a web browser and in the address bar type.When you complete a backup, you can even restore files from your backup if the original files are deleted from your Mac or the hard disk or SSD in your Mac is erased or replaced. With Unraid 6. If you want to control when backups are completed, we suggest you use a tool such as Time Machine Editor so you can customize when backups are made and select a host of other options not available in Time Machine itself.
Thereafter, Time Machine backs up only the files that changed since the previous backup, so future backups should be faster.
Reminder: We suggest you use a 3rd party tool such as Time Machine Editor so you can customize when backups are made and select a host of other options not available in the Time Machine program itself.
Now, all of your Time Machine backups will be stored on your Unraid server and if something bad happens to your Mac, you will be able to restore files, settings, and apps from these backups! You will need to create a separate share for each Time Machine backup and separate users in Unraid. For example, say the Stooges want to backup their Macs. If the username on each of the Macs is larry, curly, and moe, you would create Unraid users larry, curly, and moe.
Once the users are set up then you would create the individual Time Machine shares ex: tm-larry, tm-curly, tm-moe. From there, simply follow the instructions above! Jump to: navigationsearch. Personal tools Log in.You can think of this initial connection as a "log on". The connection request includes a set of credentialsthat is, an encrypted user name and password associated with the Windows PC initiating the connection.
See below for instructions on how to clear this.
If we have a user name and password match, then access to the server is granted as that user. This obviously implies that you have previously created an unRaid user and password that exactly matches the Windows user name and password. If we have a user name match, but the passwords do not match, then Windows will present a log on dialog box asking you to enter a user name and password.
Normally, you would enter your same user name, and enter the password you set for this user on the unRaid server. If we now have a user name and password match, then access to the server is granted as that user name. If the wrong password was entered, the dialog box will re-appear. This mechanism permits you to have a different password on the server than you have for your Windows log on. Here is the part that causes confusion. If upon initial connection there is no unRaid user name that matches the Windows user name, or you enter a user name in the dialog box that does not exist on the unRaid server, access to the server is granted!
In this case the server considers this to be a "guest" connection. At this point, our Windows PC is now granted access to the server. This simply means that all the shares will now appear in the explorer window. Whether or not the Windows user may access those shares is determined by the unRaid share security mode set for each share:. Once a Windows PC has made a connection to a share on a server, the same credentials that were used will be used again for all subsequent connections to any other shares on that same server.
To cancel this behavior and initiate a fresh connection, follow these steps:.
If you have created user names on the unRaid server that match Windows users, then those Windows users may or may not see a log on dialog box depending on whether their Windows log on password matches the corresponding unRaid password. Jump to: navigationsearch.It is starting its existence as an exact copy of the official manual, but will be edited to contain extra information and clarifications edited by users of unRAID.
It is expected it will eventually be more accurate and more up to date than the "Official" manual. Internet Explorer or Firefox. Normally, to connect to the Management Utility, simpy type the name of your server into your browser's address bar:. The default server name is tower. Alternately, instead of typing the server name, you could enter the server's IP address. More information on editing your hosts file can be found here.
The home page of the Management Utility is called Main. This page is divided into four horizontal sections:.
There is a line in this section for each disk hard drive of your unRAID server. In the unRAID organization, one hard drive serves as the parity disk; the other hard drives are called data disks. The parity disk is what provides the redundancy in a RAID system. The parity disk is updated every time you write any of the data disks.
If a data disk fails, there is sufficient information on the parity disk to permit the system to reconstruct the contents of the failed disk onto a new disk. The data disks are exported and appear as shares named disk1, disk2, etc. On that page you can set the spin-down-delay and the spin-up groups specific to that disk. The spin-down delay will override the global spin-down delay setting if set on an individual disk.
This is the temperature reported by the hard drive via S. This is because sending the command to a hard drive to obtain S. This is the amount of free space in the disk's file system, expressed as the number of byte blocks. The free space of a freshly formatted disk will always be less than the disk's raw size because of file system overhead.